Doña-Reveco, Cristián. “Migrant invasions to the South American Tiger: Media Portrayals, Perceptions, and Perspectives of Recent Immigration to Chile”. Under revision prior to resubmission.
Abstract:International migration flows to Chile since the mid 1990s have had three important characteristics. First, there was an increase in magnitude of migrants. That is, the number of migrants has almost doubled in the last twenty years, although the numbers are still small. Second, there has been a change in areas of origin in which new immigrants come mainly from neighboring countries. Third, this has produced a series of distinct and different responses from the state, civil society and the media. In this paper, I analyze 126 news pieces and articles published between 1990 and 2001 in Chilean newspapers with the highest circulation. I center this analysis on the way in which the newspapers portrayed the newcomers and how the newspapers attempted to construct these arrivals as a moment of change for the Chilean society. In my analysis five main themes emerged. These are on the reasons that would make migrants leave their country and come to Chile; the description of these new flows and its comparison to historical migration; discussing migration as a social problem; describing the development of new immigrant communities; and the need to develop adequate migration laws. I tie these themes to a particular historical construction of the European migration that the country received in the late 18th century and to a belief of racial superiority of Chileans with relation to its northern neighbors (Peru and Bolivia).
Doña-Reveco, Cristián and Liza Zuñiga. “National Identity, Racialization, and Criminalization: Chilean Carabineros and Recent regional Migration”. Under revision prior to resubmission.
Abstract: This article analyses the racialized construction of recent immigrants among the Chilean Carabineros as a discourse that can define the interactions between a state agency and recently arrived migrants. We argue that the construction of this discourse is framed on a socio-historical construction of Chilean identity and class position that can have important effects on the criminalization of immigrants and on the representation of immigrants as a public safety problem. We conclude by arguing that any migration policy needs to incorporate aspect that engages with building relations between Carabineros, local communities, and migrants at the micro-level.
Doña-Reveco, Cristián. “The State and its Emigrants: Consular Reports of Chilean Citizens in the United States”.
Abstract: Migration effects in the home country have been always an important component of the consequences of migration; in particular its demographic impact, the role of remittances on the development, and the political activities of emigrants. While research on the role of the state and the politics of emigration and expatriation has grown in the recent years, the state’s relevance and its institutions on engaging politically its emigrants is clearly an understudied topic of migration studies. I address this lacuna by analyzing selected documents from Chile’s Archivo del Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores with reference to Chilean consulates in the United States during the second half of the 20th Century. My objective is to understand how a state maintains relationships with its citizens abroad and the way these relationship influence the continuation of the “imagined community” abroad. From the analysis of these documents I will attempt to answer questions on the role of the consulates as organizer of the community abroad, the role of home politics in construction of citizenship abroad, and the role of these communities in the politics of the home country.
Doña-Reveco, Cristián. “Migration: The Socio-Historical Construction of the Decision to Migrate”.
Abstract: This theoretical paper explores the basic understandings of migration systems theory and its connections to research on the world system in the last fifty years. I connect this to the notion of intervening variables of migration as developed by Lee and the studies on migration decision by, among others, Akerman, DeJong, and Bilsborrow. I criticize the rational choice imperative that lies behind (in different degrees) these approaches and I propose the use of Max Weber’s action typology to understand the decision to migration. I present this argument embedded within the agency-structure and macro-micro theoretical integration debates to conclude by proposing a migration decision model.
Doña-Reveco, Cristián. “Social transformations and International migration: Southern Cone migration to the United States 1950–2010”.
Abstract: This research paper explores and explains the migratory flows from the Southern Cone of South America to the United States between 1960 and 2004. It presents a preliminary answer to questions surrounding the impacts of broad historical relations in the migration process. The main objective of this paper is to analyze changes in the migratory flows from the Southern Cone of America and their interaction with ongoing historical changes. This project makes use on two sets of information. First, secondary sources related to the recent history of the Southern Cone and the influences of the United States in this sub-region. Second, this migration is analyzed using secondary demographic data available using the Immigrant Visa category from the statistical yearbooks of the Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) and the United States Center for Immigration Services (USCIS). The statistical analysis is descriptive and exploratory, comparing the data provided by the visas with historical moments.